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Updated: Mar 18, 2021

Resource and Development


Resource: Everything available , which satisfy the needs of individual provided it is

  1. Technologically accessible

  2. Economically feasible

  3. Culturally acceptable

Interdependence: Transforming things available in an environment involves interaction between nature, technology and institutions. Human beings interact in the nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.


Classification of Resources:


A. On the basis of origin

a) Biotic Resources : All living things obtained from biosphere. eg. Flora and Fauna, livestock ,fisheries etc.


b) Abiotic Resources : All non- living things. eg. rocks and metals.


B) On the basis of Exhaustibility

a) Renewable Resources : These can be renewed by physical, chemical or mechanical processes. eg. Solar and wind energy, water etc.


b) Non- Renewable Resources : These resources take millions of years in their formation. eg. Minerals and fossil fuels.


C) On the basis of Ownership:


a) Individual Resources : Owned privately by individuals. eg. Land owned by farmers.


b) Community Resources: Accessible to all members of the communities.

eg. Public Parks, Playgrounds.


c) National Resources: All the minerals, water resources, forests , wildlife, land within

the political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles(22.2 km.)


d) International Resources: The Oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles 0f the Exclusive Economic Zone and are regulated by international institutions.


D) On the status of Development :


a) Potential Resources : Found in regions but have not been utilized. eg. Wind and

Solar energy.


b) Developed Resources: Surveyed and their quality and quantity determined.

Development Depends on technology and the level of their feasibility (cost).


c) Stock : Non availability of technology to access these resources. eg. using

hydrogen from water to create energy.


d) Reserves : Subset of Stock. Can be used with the existing technology, but to limited extend. eg. water in dams to generate hydroelectric power.



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