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Read the text given below and answer the questions that follow: [4 marks]


Groundwater in India:


Recent evidence suggests that the groundwater is under serious threat of overuse in many parts of the country. About 300 districts have reported a water level decline of over 4 metres during the past 20 years. Nearly one-third of the country is overusing their groundwater reserves. In another 25 years, 60 percent of the country would be doing the same if the present way of using this resource continues. Groundwater overuse is particularly found in the agriculturally prosperous regions of Punjab and Western U.P., hard rock plateau areas of central and south India, some coastal areas and the rapidly growing urban settlements.


Exhaustion of Natural Resources:


As per the data of BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2018, the reserves of crude oil would last only 50 years more. This is for the world as a whole. However, different countries face different situations. Countries like India depend on importing oil from abroad because they do not have enough stocks of their own. If prices of oil increase this becomes a burden for everyone. There are countries like the USA which have low reserves and hence want to secure oil through military or economic power. The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development.


Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:


i. Which of the following is the main factor responsible for the overuse of groundwater in western UP?


a. Overgrazing

b. Excessive Mining

c. Poor irrigation facilities

d. Excessive cultivation


ii. India has to import crude oil. What problems do you anticipate for the country looking at the given situation?


a. The future is bright because the reserves of oil would last only 50 years more.

b. The future is bleak because the reserves of oil would last only 50 years more.

c. The future is safe and secure because the reserves of oil would last only 50 years more.

d. All of the above


iii. Groundwater is a ________ ________ resource but its overuse in some regions is ________ the water table.


a. Renewable, lowering

b. Non-renewable, lowering

c. Renewable, increasing

d. Non-renewable, increasing


iv. "The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development". Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?


a. It cares for the need of future generations.

b. It promotes the efficient use of natural resources.

c. It lays emphasis on quality of life.

d. All of the above


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