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Updated: Sep 12, 2020

Democracy: Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.

Features of democracy:

1) In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those elected by the people.



  • In Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup in October 1999.

  • He overthrew democratically elected government declared himself the Chief executive .

  • Later he changed his designation to President.

  • In August 2002 he issues a legal framework order amended the constitution of Pakistan

  • Pakistani media, human rights organisations and democracy activists said that the referendum was based on malpractices and fraud

  • The power to take final decision rested with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them were elected by the people.

2) A democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing



  • The National People’s Congress(Parliament) has the power to appoint the President of the country.

  • It has nearly 3,000 members elected from all over China. Some members are elected by the army.

  • Before  elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party.

  • In china elections are held after every five years

  • The government is always formed by the communist party of China


  • Since 1930 Mexico hold elections after every six year to elect its President.

  • But until 2000 every elections was won by a party called PRI

  • The PRI use dirty tricks to win the election

  • Media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticize them

  • The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates.

  • Sometimes the polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute, which made it difficult for people to cast their votes.

3) One person, one vote ,one value


  • Until 2015, In Saudi Arabia women do not have the right to vote

  • Estonia had has made its citizenship rule in such a way that people belonging to Russian minority find difficult to get the right to vote

  • In Fiji the electoral system is such that the vote is an indigenous Fijian has more value than that of an Indian Fiji

4) Rule of law, Respect for rights


  • Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in 1980

  • Elections were held regularly and always won by ZANU-PF

  • Party's leader Robert Mugabe has been the president of the country since independence.

  • Election are won by  party through violence and harassment of the opposition politician  and journalist

  • In Zimbabwe over the years his government has changed the constitution several times to increase the powers of the president and make him less accountable

  • Opposition party workers were harassed and their meeting disrupted.

  • The govt. Ignored some court judgements that went against it

Arguments against Democracy

  • Democracy has a political competition and power play it leaves no space for morality 

  • It is based on electoral competition which leads to corruption 

  • Many people  have to be consulted in a democracy which lead to delays

  • Elected leader  do not always know the best interest of the people which key to bad decision

  • Ordinary people do not know what is good for them they should not decide anything

Arguments favour of democracy

  • Democracy improves the quality of decision making

  • Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.

  • Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens.

  • Democracy is better than other forms of govt. Because it allows is to correct its own mistakes

  • Democracy improves the quality of decision making because it take time to give out important judgement s

China's famine of 1958-1961 was the worst recorded famine in world history.

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