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Updated: Sep 5, 2020


  • We can choose our representative

  • It creates political competition

  • Democratic way of selecting representatives

  • We can select Government

  • We can select the political party whose policies will guide the government.


  • Free and fair elections

  • Proper voter list

  • One person , One vote and one value

  • Candidate should be free to contest elections

  • Elections must be held regularly(5 years)

  • There should be more than one party and voters should get more choice


  • It creates disunity and factionalism in every locality

  • No space for morality

  • Dirty tricks to win elections

  • Creates instability in the government

  • Candidates and parties make allegations

  • Long term policies cannot be formulated.


  •  Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties

  • Political leader are motivated by a desire to advanced their political careers

  • Competition will benefit the citizens as they can choose their leader who will create more economic growth

  • Because of competition of parties the ruling party or coming ruling party can improve their  mistakes and will serve people in better way

  •  To win this competition, parties have to serve the people even if they don't want to. 

  • They know that if they raise the issue that people want them to, their popularity will increase and their chances of winning will also increase

  • If the competition is there then each party would work hard to save their power but without corruption

General Elections: Elections in all constituencies, same day or within a few days.

By-Elections : Elections in one constituency , due to death or resignation of member.

Electoral Constituencies:

  •   Country divided into different areas for election

  •   Voters living in one constituency will elect only one representative.

  •   Lok sabha elections= 543 constituencies, MP= member of parliament

  • Assembly Elections/state= state divided in constituencies, MLA= Member of Legislative Assembly

Reserved Constituencies:

  •  Reserved constituencies are those constituencies in which seats are reserved for  SCs and STs on the basis of their population.

  •  We need reserved constituencies to give equal right to vote to all the citizens because India has a universal  adult franchise.

  •  Weaker sections may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections.

  •  84 constituents are reserved for SC and 47 are reserved for ST(2019)

  •  Candidates of general category are not eligible to contest from these constituencies 


  • Voter's list is also called Electoral Roll

  • The list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone

  • Only Indians can vote in the elections whether they are living in foreign or India

  • There is no differentiation between rich and poor

  • There is no caste discrimination

  •  No one can be denied the right to vote

  • Everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representative

  • There are elections in every 5 year and and all citizens can vote above 18 years of age . One citizen can give only one vote .

  • Voter's list is an important step for it is linked to the first step of democratic election

  • some criminal and unsound persons cannot vote

  • New system of election photo identity card (epic) has been introduced.

  •  The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote

  • The card is not yet compulsory for voting.

  • For voting, the voters can show many other proofs or identity like the ration card or the driving licence.

Nomination of candidates

  • Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support.

  • Any-one who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections but for contesting election person should be above 25 years.

  • Candidates have to give following details:     ---Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate     --- Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family, and     --- Education qualifications of the  candidate

  • Every person who wishes to contest election has to fill a nomination form and give some money as security deposit.

  • Party's nomination is often called party 'ticket'.

  • This information has to be made public Election Campaign

  • It is necessary to have a free and open discussion about who is a better representative

  • In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues

  • In our country such campaign  take place for a two-week period

  • Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan garibi hatao remove poverty in the lok sabha election of 1971

  • Save democracy was a slogan given by Janata party and the leadership of Jai Prakash Narayan in the lok sabha election held in 1977

  • According to our elections law, no party or candidate can:-

  1. Bribe or threaten voters

  2. Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion

  3. Use government resources for election campaign

  4. Spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency in an Assembly elections Polling and counting of votes

  • The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or 'poll' their vote. That day is usually called the election day

  • Every person whose name is in the voter list can go to a nearby polling booth and can vote, situated usually in a local school or a government office.

  • An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way.

  • Nowadays electronic voting machines (EVM) are used to record votes

  • A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed.

  • Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place.

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