Updated: Sep 5, 2020
WHY DO WE NEED ELECTIONS?
We can choose our representative
It creates political competition
Democratic way of selecting representatives
We can select Government
We can select the political party whose policies will guide the government.
WHAT MAKES ELECTION DEMOCRATIC?
Free and fair elections
Proper voter list
One person , One vote and one value
Candidate should be free to contest elections
Elections must be held regularly(5 years)
There should be more than one party and voters should get more choice
DISADVANTAGES OF POLITICAL COMPETITION
It creates disunity and factionalism in every locality
No space for morality
Dirty tricks to win elections
Creates instability in the government
Candidates and parties make allegations
Long term policies cannot be formulated.
ADVANTAGES OF POLITICAL COMPETITION
Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties
Political leader are motivated by a desire to advanced their political careers
Competition will benefit the citizens as they can choose their leader who will create more economic growth
Because of competition of parties the ruling party or coming ruling party can improve their mistakes and will serve people in better way
To win this competition, parties have to serve the people even if they don't want to.
They know that if they raise the issue that people want them to, their popularity will increase and their chances of winning will also increase
If the competition is there then each party would work hard to save their power but without corruption
General Elections: Elections in all constituencies, same day or within a few days.
By-Elections : Elections in one constituency , due to death or resignation of member.
Country divided into different areas for election
Voters living in one constituency will elect only one representative.
Lok sabha elections= 543 constituencies, MP= member of parliament
Assembly Elections/state= state divided in constituencies, MLA= Member of Legislative Assembly
Reserved constituencies are those constituencies in which seats are reserved for SCs and STs on the basis of their population.
We need reserved constituencies to give equal right to vote to all the citizens because India has a universal adult franchise.
Weaker sections may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections.
84 constituents are reserved for SC and 47 are reserved for ST(2019)
Candidates of general category are not eligible to contest from these constituencies
Voter's list is also called Electoral Roll
The list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone
Only Indians can vote in the elections whether they are living in foreign or India
There is no differentiation between rich and poor
There is no caste discrimination
No one can be denied the right to vote
Everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representative
There are elections in every 5 year and and all citizens can vote above 18 years of age . One citizen can give only one vote .
Voter's list is an important step for it is linked to the first step of democratic election
some criminal and unsound persons cannot vote
New system of election photo identity card (epic) has been introduced.
The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote
The card is not yet compulsory for voting.
For voting, the voters can show many other proofs or identity like the ration card or the driving licence.
Nomination of candidates
Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support.
Any-one who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections but for contesting election person should be above 25 years.
Candidates have to give following details: ---Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate --- Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his or her family, and --- Education qualifications of the candidate
Every person who wishes to contest election has to fill a nomination form and give some money as security deposit.
Party's nomination is often called party 'ticket'.
This information has to be made public Election Campaign
It is necessary to have a free and open discussion about who is a better representative
In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues
In our country such campaign take place for a two-week period
Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan garibi hatao remove poverty in the lok sabha election of 1971
Save democracy was a slogan given by Janata party and the leadership of Jai Prakash Narayan in the lok sabha election held in 1977
According to our elections law, no party or candidate can:-
Bribe or threaten voters
Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion
Use government resources for election campaign
Spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency in an Assembly elections Polling and counting of votes
The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or 'poll' their vote. That day is usually called the election day
Every person whose name is in the voter list can go to a nearby polling booth and can vote, situated usually in a local school or a government office.
An agent of each candidate is allowed to sit inside the polling booth and ensure that the voting takes place in a fair way.
Nowadays electronic voting machines (EVM) are used to record votes
A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed.
Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place.