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  • Modern nationalism in Europe and formation of nation states

  • In India and many other colonies -growth of nationalism is connected to anti-colonial movement

  • Oppression under colonial rule - a shared bond that tied different groups

Effects of First World war(1914-18)

  • The war created a new economic and political situation.

  • Huge defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.

  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced

  • Through the war years , prices increased, leading to extreme hardships for the common people

  • Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment took place

  • Crops failed ,which lead to acute shortage of food. Famine like situation existed in many parts of the country.

  • Influenza epidemic took place . 12 to 13 million people died.

The Idea of satyagrah

  • mass-agitation

  • Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915

  • power of truth and the need to search for truth

  • If the struggle was against injustices ,then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor

  • A Satyagrahi can win without being aggressive, through non-violence and appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

Early Experiments of Satyagrah

  • 1917 Champaran in Bihar, against Indigo plantation

  • 1917 Kheda in Gujarat against payment of revenue

  • 1918 Ahmedabad in Gujarat in support of cotton mill workers

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