Modern nationalism in Europe and formation of nation states
In India and many other colonies -growth of nationalism is connected to anti-colonial movement
Oppression under colonial rule - a shared bond that tied different groups
Effects of First World war(1914-18)
The war created a new economic and political situation.
Huge defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced
Through the war years , prices increased, leading to extreme hardships for the common people
Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment took place
Crops failed ,which lead to acute shortage of food. Famine like situation existed in many parts of the country.
Influenza epidemic took place . 12 to 13 million people died.
The Idea of satyagrah
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915
power of truth and the need to search for truth
If the struggle was against injustices ,then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor
A Satyagrahi can win without being aggressive, through non-violence and appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
Early Experiments of Satyagrah
1917 Champaran in Bihar, against Indigo plantation
1917 Kheda in Gujarat against payment of revenue
1918 Ahmedabad in Gujarat in support of cotton mill workers